A primary care physician (PCP) is a physician who provides both the first contact for a person with an undiagnosed health concern as well as continuing care of varied medical conditions, not limited by cause, organ system, or diagnosis. Since recently, the term is primarily used in the United States. In the past in the US and still in the United Kingdom (and in many other English-speaking countries), the equivalent term was/is general practitioner.
All physicians first complete medical school (MD, MBBS, or DO). To become primary care physicians, medical school graduates then undertake postgraduate training in primary care programs, such as family medicine (also called family practice or general practice in some countries), pediatrics or internal medicine. Certified Physician Assistants (PA-Cs) and Nurse Practitioners NP-Cs under the supervision of a doctor can also act as a PCP.
Most HMO insurance plans will require you to choose a PCP to see, who can write you referrals to see specialists, and complete your yearly wellness visit.
Internal Medicine is the primary medical care treatment of adults. An internist completes a 2 year residency beyond internship in the training of acute and chronic medical diseases. They will do physicals (yearly wellness visits), routine vaccinations, treat infections, coordinate a patient’s care through other specialties and surgeons, and recommend healthy lifestyle changes using both evidence-based medicine, anti-aging techniques, complimentary medicine, and aesthetic medicine.
HIV Treatment & Prevention
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
There are many treatment options available for those who are HIV positive, as well as Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) which can be used to stop infection up to 72 hours after a possible exposure, and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) which if used daily can prevent infection.
Anal HPV Diagnosis and Treatment
HPV can cause warts in the genital and anal areas. The medical term for an anal or genital wart is condyloma acuminatum. The 2 types of HPV that cause most cases of anal and genital warts are HPV-6 and HPV-11. They are called low-risk types of HPV because they tend to cause warts but not cancer. HPV infection can cause anal and genital warts, but most people infected with HPV do not ha
ve genital warts or any other signs of infection.
- Botox – An injection performed in a controlled medical environment. It was FDA approved in 2002 for cosmetic procedures. Botox is injected into the muscles beneath the skin to diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, crows feet and furrows on the forehead. Botox works by relaxing the muscle into which it is injected. When a muscle normally contracts, such as when someone smiles, it causes the skin above it to crease. The weakened muscle leaves the skin smoother and less prone to wrinkling. The lines that result from frequent muscle contractions gradually fade, and in some cases, disappear. The effect of Botox is not permanent but lasts from 3 to 8 months. It can be used to reduce headaches, muscle twitches and sweating.
- Dysport – An injection used for temporary improvement of lines between the eyebrows, forehead wrinkles and crows feet. There is little to no downtime after the injection. The onset of Dysport is in 2-5 days. It was approved by the FDA in 2009 and is used similarly to Botox.
- Restylane – A well-established dermal filler that provides a safe and non-invasive means to create natural, younger-looking skin. Restylane.is made of a specially-formulated version of hyaluronic acid, a natural substance found in human skin. When injected into the skin, this dermal filler replaces the fullness and elasticity that may have been lost from aging or years of sun exposure.Restylane is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and folds, such as the lines from your nose to the corners of your mouth (nasolabial folds).
- Perlane – A well-established dermal filler that provide a safe and non-invasive means to replace lost volume and restores youthful contours to create natural, younger-looking skin. The gel particles of Perlane® are slightly larger and designed for use in deeper folds especially below the nasolabial folds. It is a member of the Restylane family of products.
- Sculptra – A wonderful volumizing agent that has a very low side-effect profile. Sculptra is a safe, synthetic and biocompatible material for restoration and/or correction of the signs of facial fat lost (lipoatrophy), which is injected below the surface of the skin in the area of fat loss and it provides a gradual increase in skin thickness. Treatments are usually done monthly for 2 or 3 times and may last 18-24 months.
- Laser Lipo – The Strawberry Laser is newly approved treatment in the United States that has been popular overseas for year. We use a belt studded with cool laser diodes to target areas that you want to remove fat from, and smaller laser diodes to help activate your lymphatic system to help move that fat out with an increased water intake and some daily cardio.